A charged isolated particle with spherically symmetry is considered at origin in empty space. The particle has both mass and charge; therefore it is under the influence of both gravitational and electro-magnetic field. So to find out a line element especial attention is given in Einstein’s gravitational and Maxwell’s electro-magnetic field equations. Initially Einstein’s field equations are considered individually for gravitational and electro-magnetic fields in empty space. In this work initially starts with Schwarzschild like solution and then a simple elegant, systematic method is used. In these methods the e-m field tensor is also used from Maxwell’s electro-magnetic field equations. Finally thus a new metric is found for both positive and negative charged particles. The new metric for electron is not same as the metric is devised by Reissner and Nordstrom. The new metric for proton is used to find another new metric for rotating charged particle. The new metric is extended for the massive body and gives us some new information about the mass required to stop electro-magnetic interaction. It gives interesting information that planet having mass more than 1.21 times of Jupiter mass, live cannot survive. Also gives information that the mass greater than the aforesaid mass there is no electrically charged body in the universe.
Published in | International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (Volume 7, Issue 1) |
DOI | 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13 |
Page(s) | 16-27 |
Creative Commons |
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, provided the original work is properly cited. |
Copyright |
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Science Publishing Group |
Line Element, Metric, Gravitational Field, e-m Field, e-m Field Tensor
[1] | A. Einstein, “On the general theory of relativity”, Annalen der physic, 49; 769-822 (1916). English translation in the ‘The principle of Relativity by Metheun, Dover publications (1923). |
[2] | K. Schwarzschild, “On the gravitational field of a point-mass according to Einstein theory”, Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Phys. Math. Kl.; 189 (English translation) Abraham Zeimanov J, 1: 10-19 (1916). |
[3] | R. P. Kerr, “Gravitational field of a spinning mass as an example of algebraically special Metrics”, Physical Review Letters, 11 (5): 237-240 (1963). |
[4] | E. Newman, A. Janis, “Note on the Kerr spinning-particle metric”, Journal of Mathematical Physics 6 (6); 915-917 (1965). |
[5] | J. B. Hartle, “Gravity-An introduction to Einstein’s general relativity”, Pearson, 5th ed., p 400- 419, (2012). |
[6] | S. Weinberg, “Gravitation and Cosmology”, Wiley India Private Ltd., p412-415 (2014). |
[7] | A. Z. Friedman, Phys. A, 10 (1), p377 (1922). |
[8] | H. P. Robertson, Astro. Phys. J., 82, p284 (1935). |
[9] | T. Kaluza, “On the unification problem in physics”, Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (Math. Phys): 966-972 (1921). |
[10] | O. Klein, “The atomicity of electricity as a quantum theory law”, Nature, 118: 516 (1926). |
[11] | O. Klein, “Quantum theory and five dimensional relativity”, Zeit. F. Physik 37: 895, Reproduced in O’Raiferaigh’s book (1926). |
[12] | A. S. Eddington, The mathematical theory of relativity”, Published by Cambridge University Press; 185-187 (1923). |
[13] | H. Reissner, “Uber die eigengravitation des elektrischen felds nach der Einsteinschen theorie”, Annalen der Physik (in German) 50 (9): 106-120 (1916). |
[14] | G. Nordstrom, “On the energy of the gravitational field in Einstein theory”, Proc. Amsterdam Acad., 20, p1238 (1918). |
[15] | G. B. Jeffery, “The field of an electron on Einstein’s theory of gravitation”, Proceeding Royal Society, A99: 123-134 (1921). |
[16] | D. Finkelstein, “Past-future asymmetry of the gravitational field of a point particle”, Physical Review 110: 965-968 (1958). |
[17] | R. H. Boyer and R. W. Lindquist, “Maximal analytic extension of the Kerr metric”, J. Math. Phys. 8 (2): 265-281 (1967). |
[18] | E. Newman, E. Couch, K. Chinnapared, A. Exton, A. Prakash, R. Torrence, “Metric of a rotating Charged mass”, Journal of Mathematical Physics, 6 (6): 918-919 (1965). |
[19] | L. Ryder, “Introduction to General Relativity” Cambridge university press, 265-271 (2019). |
[20] | N. Bijan, “Schwarzschild-like solution for ellipsoidal celestial objects”, Int. J. Phys. Sci. 6 (6): 1426-1430 (2011). |
[21] | R. J. Beach, “A classical Field Theory of Gravity and Electromagnetism”, Journal of Modern Physics, 5: 928-939 (2014). |
[22] | M. D. Yu-Ching, A derivation of the Kerr metric by ellipsoid coordinates transformation”, International Journal of Physical Science, 12 (11): 130-136 (2017). |
[23] | M. A. El-Lakany, “Unification of gravity and electromagnetism”, Journal of Physical Science And Application, 7 (3): 15-24 (2017). |
[24] | L. J. Wang, “Unification of gravitational and electromagnetic forces”, Fundamental Journal of Modern Physics 11 (1): 29-40 (2018). |
[25] | B. K. Borah, “Gravitational and electromagnetic field of an isolated proton”, Journal of Ultra-scientist of Physical Science-A, 31 (3): 23-31 (2019). |
[26] | B. K. Borah, “Gravitational and electromagnetic field of an isolated positively charged particle”, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, 6 (4): 54-60 (2020). |
APA Style
Bikash Kumar Borah. (2021). Gravitational and Electromagnetic Field of an Isolated Rotating Charged Particle. International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, 7(1), 16-27. https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13
ACS Style
Bikash Kumar Borah. Gravitational and Electromagnetic Field of an Isolated Rotating Charged Particle. Int. J. Appl. Math. Theor. Phys. 2021, 7(1), 16-27. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13
AMA Style
Bikash Kumar Borah. Gravitational and Electromagnetic Field of an Isolated Rotating Charged Particle. Int J Appl Math Theor Phys. 2021;7(1):16-27. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13
@article{10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13, author = {Bikash Kumar Borah}, title = {Gravitational and Electromagnetic Field of an Isolated Rotating Charged Particle}, journal = {International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics}, volume = {7}, number = {1}, pages = {16-27}, doi = {10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13}, url = {https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13}, eprint = {https://article.sciencepublishinggroup.com/pdf/10.11648.j.ijamtp.20210701.13}, abstract = {A charged isolated particle with spherically symmetry is considered at origin in empty space. The particle has both mass and charge; therefore it is under the influence of both gravitational and electro-magnetic field. So to find out a line element especial attention is given in Einstein’s gravitational and Maxwell’s electro-magnetic field equations. Initially Einstein’s field equations are considered individually for gravitational and electro-magnetic fields in empty space. In this work initially starts with Schwarzschild like solution and then a simple elegant, systematic method is used. In these methods the e-m field tensor is also used from Maxwell’s electro-magnetic field equations. Finally thus a new metric is found for both positive and negative charged particles. The new metric for electron is not same as the metric is devised by Reissner and Nordstrom. The new metric for proton is used to find another new metric for rotating charged particle. The new metric is extended for the massive body and gives us some new information about the mass required to stop electro-magnetic interaction. It gives interesting information that planet having mass more than 1.21 times of Jupiter mass, live cannot survive. Also gives information that the mass greater than the aforesaid mass there is no electrically charged body in the universe.}, year = {2021} }
TY - JOUR T1 - Gravitational and Electromagnetic Field of an Isolated Rotating Charged Particle AU - Bikash Kumar Borah Y1 - 2021/03/12 PY - 2021 N1 - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13 DO - 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13 T2 - International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics JF - International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics JO - International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics SP - 16 EP - 27 PB - Science Publishing Group SN - 2575-5927 UR - https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ijamtp.20210701.13 AB - A charged isolated particle with spherically symmetry is considered at origin in empty space. The particle has both mass and charge; therefore it is under the influence of both gravitational and electro-magnetic field. So to find out a line element especial attention is given in Einstein’s gravitational and Maxwell’s electro-magnetic field equations. Initially Einstein’s field equations are considered individually for gravitational and electro-magnetic fields in empty space. In this work initially starts with Schwarzschild like solution and then a simple elegant, systematic method is used. In these methods the e-m field tensor is also used from Maxwell’s electro-magnetic field equations. Finally thus a new metric is found for both positive and negative charged particles. The new metric for electron is not same as the metric is devised by Reissner and Nordstrom. The new metric for proton is used to find another new metric for rotating charged particle. The new metric is extended for the massive body and gives us some new information about the mass required to stop electro-magnetic interaction. It gives interesting information that planet having mass more than 1.21 times of Jupiter mass, live cannot survive. Also gives information that the mass greater than the aforesaid mass there is no electrically charged body in the universe. VL - 7 IS - 1 ER -