Volume 3, Issue 2, April 2017, Page: 26-37
The Grand Unification of Dark Matters: The Dark Universe Revealed
Dan Sharpe, Fitzwilliam, New Hampshire, USA
Received: Jan. 31, 2017;       Accepted: Feb. 15, 2017;       Published: Mar. 17, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170302.12      View  1980      Downloads  100
A unifying model and theory that covers dark matter, dark energy, gravity, space and negative energy by means of observation, citation, and deduction, revealing a fundamental definition for both space and gravity, support of dark energy theory, explanation of dark matter, revealing additional structure and properties of baryonic atoms, sheds new light on baryogenesis, and revises estimates of the longevity of the universe. Other matters discussed are aerospace, anti-gravity, artificial gravity, gravitational waves, wormholes, interstellar space travel, cold fusion, cold fission, health and wellbeing, the earth’s atmosphere and global warming.
Space, Dark Matter, Gravity, Dark Energy, Hydrogen
To cite this article
Dan Sharpe, The Grand Unification of Dark Matters: The Dark Universe Revealed, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2017, pp. 26-37. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20170302.12
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Powell, C (2013) The Possible Parallel Universe of Dark Matter, Discovery Magazine [Online]. Available: http://discovermagazine.com/2013/julyaug/21-the-possible-parallel-universe-of-dark-matter.
Jordon (2007) Hydrogen Fundamentals, HySafe [Online]. Available: http://www.hysafe.org/download/997/brhs_ch1_fundamentals-version%201_0_1.pdf.
(2017) Dummies Guide to Hydrogen, Molecular Hydrogen Foundation [Online] Available: http://www.molecularhydrogenfoundation.org/core-information/dummies-guide-to-hydrogen-gas/.
(2014) What is the Universe Made of? NASA VAMP Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe [Online] Available: https://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/universe/uni_matter.html.
Tuttle, K. (2015) Planck Satellite Brings Early Universe into Focus (Kavli Hangout), Kavli Foundation [Online] Available: http://www.space.com/28570-planck-satellite-brings-early-universe-into-focus.html.
Choi, C (2016) Dark Matter’s Invisible Hand, Nova Next [Online] Available: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/physics/interacting-dark-matter/.
W.-M. Yao et al. (Particle Data Group) (2006). "Review of Particle Physics". Journal of Physics G. 33: 1–1232. arXiv:astro-ph/0601168. Bibcode:2006JPhG...33....1Y. doi:10.1088/0954-3899/33/1/001.7.
Darling, D Exotic matter". Encyclopedia of Science, [Online] Available: http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/E/exotic_matter.html.
Einstein, Albert (1905), Mass-Energy Equivalence (1905). "Ist die Trägheit eines Körpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhängig?", Annalen der Physik, 18: 639–643, Bibcode:1905AnP...323..639E, doi:10.1002/andp.19053231314. See also the [Online] Available English Ttranslation: http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/E_mc2/www/.
Tsujikawa, Shinji (2003). "Introductory review of cosmic inflation": arXiv:hep-ph/0304257. Bibcode:2003hep.ph....4257T.
Alcubierre, Miguel (1994). "The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity". Classical and Quantum Gravity. 11 (5): L73–L77. arXiv:gr-qc/0009013. Bibcode:1994CQGra..11L..73A. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/11/5/001.
Einstein, Albert (1915) Albert Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity,“Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation” Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin: 844–847 847 [Online] Available English Translation: http://einsteinpapers.press.princeton.edu/.
Read, N (2015) Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, space.com [Online]. Available: http://www.space.com/17661-theory-general-relativity.html.
Perrotto, T (2011) "NASA's Gravity Probe B Confirms Two Einstein Space-Time Theories". Nasa.gov. Milgrom, M. 1983, ApJ, 270, 365 Bipcode: 1983ApJ...270..365M doi: 10.1086/161130.
The Discovery of Gravitational Waves, Scientific American [Online] Available: https://www.scientificamerican.com/report/the-discovery-of-gravitational-waves/.
In Milestone, Scientists Detect Gravitational Waves As Black Holes Collide, the two-wave [Online] Available: http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-way/2016/02/11/466286219/in-milestone-scientists-detect-waves-in-space-time-as-black-holes-collide.
Nemiroff, R.; Bonnell, J., eds. (2014). "The Potsdam Gravity Potato". Astronomy Picture of the Day. NASA.
M. Yu. Khlopov (2015) 10 years of composite dark atoms arXiv:1512.01081.
Xiang-Song Chen (2015) Co-existence of Gravity and Antigravity: The Unification of Dark Matter and Dark Energy arXiv:astro-ph/0506070.
(2015) Gravity Variations, DataGenetics [Online] Available: http://datagenetics.com/blog/september62015/index.html.
Ayre, J (2012) Magnetic Field And Gravity Intimately Linked, planetsave.com [Online] Available: http://planetsave.com/2012/10/26/the-magnetic-field-and-gravity-from-a-satellite-perspective/.
Strobel, N (2001) Gravity Interactions, Astronomy Notes [Online] Available: http://www.astronomynotes.com/gravappl/s10.htm.
Kobertein, B (2014) Why Einstein will never be wrong, Universe Today [Online] Available: https://phys.org/news/2014-01-einstein-wrong.html.
(2006) Huggett, Nick and Hoefer, Carl, (2006) Absolute and Relational Theories of Space and Motion, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/spacetime-theories.
Baez and Bunn (2006) The Meaning of Einstein’s Equation, National Science Foundation [Online] Available: http://math.ucr.edu/home/baez/einstein/einstein.pdf.
Gidfea, E. (2012) Electromagnetics General Theory of the Electromagnetic Field Classical and Relativistic Approached, Third Edition, Transylvania University Press [Online] Available: http://webbut.unitbv.ro/Carti%20on-line/Fizica/Nicolaide.pdf.
Fitzpatric, R (2006) Relativity and Electromagnetism, University of Texis [Online] Available: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/em/lectures/node106.html.
Stover, Christopher and Weisstein, Eric W. "Euclidean Space." From MathWorld--A Wolfram Web Resource. [Online] Available: http://mathworld.wolfram.com/EuclideanSpace.html.
Petkov, V. (2010). Minkowski Spacetime: A Hundred Years Later. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer. p. 70. ISBN 9048134749.
Sanders, R (2010) Most Precise Test Yet of Einstein’s Gravitational Redshift, UC Berkly, [Online] Available: http://news.berkeley.edu/2010/02/17/gravitational_redshift/.
Hogan, Jenny (2007). "Unseen Universe: Welcome to the dark side". Nature. 448 (7151): 240–245. Bibcode:2007Natur.448..240H. doi:10.1038/448240a. PMID 17637630.
Caldwell, R. R. (2002). "A phantom menace? Cosmological consequences of a dark energy component with super-negative equation of state". Physics Letters B. 545 (1–2): 23–29. arXiv:astro-ph/9908168. Bibcode:2002PhLB..545...23C. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(02)02589-3.
Kazuharu Bamba, Salvatore Capozziello, Shin'ichi Nojiri, Sergei D. Odintsov (2012) Dark energy cosmology: the equivalent description via different theoretical models and cosmography tests arXix: arXiv:1205.3421v3 doj: 10.1007/s10509-012-1181-8.
Moffat, J. W. (2005), JCAP, 2005, 003 Gravitational theory, galaxy rotation curves and cosmology without dark matter Bipcode: 2005JCAP...05..003M doi: 10.1088/1475-7516/2005/05/003.
Amendola, L and Tsujikawa, S (2010) Dark Energy 1st Edition, ISBN: 0521516005.
Xiang-Song Chen (2015) Co-existence of Gravity and Antigravity: The Unification of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, arXiv: astro-ph/0506070 Choi, c (2013) New Kind of Dark Matter that Could Form Dark Atoms, Space.com [Online] Available: http://www.space.com/21508-dark-matter-atoms-disks.html.
Cartlidge, E. (2009) Is Dark Matter mostly ‘Dark Atoms’?, PhysicsWorld.com [Online] Available: http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2009/sep/21/is-dark-matter-mostly-dark-atoms.
Copi, C. J.; Schramm, D. N.; Turner, M. S. (1995). "Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and the Baryon Density of the Universe". Science. 267 (5195): 192–199.
Salucci P., Lapi A., Tonini C., Gentile G., Yegorova I., Klein U.: The universal rotation curve of spiral galaxies. II: The dark matter distribution out to the virial radius. MNRAS (2001) 323 (2): 285-292 arXiv:astro-ph/0703115 doi j.1365-8711.2001.04077.x.
Sobouti, Y., Hasani Zonoozi, A., Haghi, H.: Tully–Fisher relation, key to dark matter companion of baryonic matter. Astron. Astrophys, A&A 507, 635-638 (2009) doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912571.
Garrett, Katherine; Dūda, Gintaras (2011). "Dark Matter: A Primer". Advances in Astronomy. 2011: 1–22. arXiv:1006.2483. Bibcode:2011AdAst2011E...8G. doi:10.1155/2011/968283.
Kipreos (2005) Dark Energy Explained by Relativistic Time Dilation?, Astronomy Now, [Online] Available: https://astronomynow.com/2015/01/05/dark-energy-explained-by-relativistic-time-dilation/.
Bergstrom, L. (2000). "Non-baryonic dark matter: Observational evidence and detection methods". Reports on Progress in Physics. 63 (5): 793–841. arXiv:hep-ph/0002126. Bibcode:2000RPPh...63..793B. doi:10.1088/0034-4885/63/5/2r3. A45 Metallic Hydrogen.
Crane, L. (2017). "Metallic hydrogen finally made in lab at mind-boggling pressure". New Scientist. [Online] Available: https://www.newscientist.com/article/2119442-metallic-hydrogen-finally-made-in-lab-at-mind-boggling-pressure/.
Lemmonick, S. (2017). "There's Reason To Be Skeptical About Metallic Hydrogen". Forbes, [Online] Available: https://www.forbes.com/sites/samlemonick/2017/01/27/theres-reason-to-be-skeptical-about-metallic-hydrogen/#666df570343f.
Ashcroft, N. W. (2000). "The hydrogen liquids". Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 12 (8A): 129. Bibcode:2000JPCM...12..129A. doi:10.1088/0953-8984/12/8A/314.
Zurek, E.; et al. (2009). "A little bit of lithium does a lot for hydrogen". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 106 (42): 17640–3. Bibcode:2009PNAS..10617640Z.
D. Dolgov (1991) Baryogenesis in the Universe doi: 10.1007/978-94-011-3410-1_26.
Bonhoeffer KF, Harteck P (1929). "Para- and ortho hydrogen". Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie B. 4 (1–2): 113–141.
(2003) Ortho and Para hydrogen (Spin Isomers Of hydrogen), chemistryworks.net [Online] Available: http://www.chemistryworks.net/2013/09/ortho-and-para-hydrogen.html.
(2012) Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry, BuffaloEdu [Online] Available: http://www.physics.buffalo.edu/phy514/w01/index.html.
Pappas, S. (2013) Why do atoms get smaller across a period?, Reference.com [Online] Available: https://www.reference.com/science/atoms-smaller-across-period-88b34948679aa71f.
Mysteriously Shrinking Proton Continues to Puzzle Physicists, LIVESCI=NCE [Online] Available: http://www.livescience.com/28707-shrinking-proton-puzzle-new-experiments.html.
Mohit, j (2015) The Mysterious World of Fundamental Particles: Cosmic Beginnings, ASIN: B00IILWVLO.
The Delta Baryon, Hyperphysics, [Online] Available: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/Particles/delta.html.
Willyard, C, Baryons – Delta Particles, Amsler et al. (Particle Data Group) (2008). "Review of Particle Physics". [Online] Available: http://www.whillyard.com/science-pages/delta.html.
Adelberger, Eric G.; et al. (2011). "Solar fusion cross sections. II. The pp chain and CNO cycles". Reviews of Modern Physics. 83 (1): 201. arXiv:1004.2318. Bibcode:2011RvMP...83..195A. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.83.195.
N. E. Holden (2004). "Table of the Isotopes". In D. R. Lide. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (85th ed.). CRC Press. Section 11. ISBN 978-0-8493-0485-9.
Tate, K (2014) Proton Fusion, the Sun’s Power Source, Explained (Infographic), space.com [Online] Available: http://www.space.com/26956-proton-fusion-sun-power-source-infographic.html.
A2_1 Basic Ideas and Concepts in Nuclear Physics: An Introductory Approach, Third Edition K. Heyde Taylor & Francis 2004. Print ISBN 978-0-7503-0980-6. eBook ISBN 978-1-4200-5494-1. DOI: 10.1201/9781420054941.ch2.
B10Harp, D (2016) The Shadow Universe of Dark Matter Life, ISBN: 1523613947.
A34_1Dorin N Poenaru et al. "Cold fission as heavy ion emission", Zeitschrift für Physik A, Springer Berlin / Heidelberg, Vol 328, No 3 / 1987, doi:10.1007/BF01290499, pp. 309-314.
Ionization Energy, LibreTexts.org NCE [Online] Available: https://chem.libretexts.org/Core/Physical_and_Theoretical_Chemistry/Physical_Properties_of_Matter/Atomic_and_Molecular_Properties/Ionization_Energy.
Buzzle, The Concept of Negative Energy in Physics Simplified for You [Online] Available: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-concept-of-negative-energy-in-physics-explained.html.
NAAP Labs (2009).Hydrogen Atom "Energy Levels". University of Nebraska Lincoln [Online] Available: http://astro.unl.edu/naap/hydrogen/levels.html.
Wolchover, N (2011) What’s the Total Energy In The Universe? [Online] Available: http://www.livescience.com/33129-total-energy-universe-zero.html.
Negative Energy is Theorized as Dark Photons [Online] Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_photon.
Carroll, Sean M. (October 29, 2008). "Dark photons". [Online] Available: http://www.preposterousuniverse.com/blog/2008/10/29/dark-photons/.
Bryman, D (2014) New Light Shed on Dark Photons [Online] Available: http://physics.aps.org/articles/v7/115.
Koberlein, B (2016), Dark Matter, Dark Photons An the Fifth Force [Online] Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/briankoberlein/2016/08/29/dark-matter-dark-photons-and-the-fifth-force/.
David C. Catling and Kevin J. Zahnle, (2009) The Planetary Air Leak, Scientific American [Online] Available: http://faculty.washington.edu/dcatling/Catling2009_SciAm.pdf.
Andrew Nicholson (2013), Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231149877.
Hydrogen as a Medical Gas (2016) Molecular Hydrogen Foundation [Online] Available: http://www.molecularhydrogenfoundation.org/hydrogen-emerging-medical-gas/.
Molecular Hydrogen: An Emerging Medical Gas With Therapeutic Potential (2016) Molecular Hydrogen Foundation [Online] Available: http://www.molecularhydrogenfoundation.org/what-is-molecular-hydrogen/.
Diana H. Barnes, Steven C. Wofsy, Brian P. Fehlau, and Elaine W. Gottlieb, James W. Elkins, Geoffrey S. Dutton, and Paul C. Novelli (2003) Hydrogen in the atmosphere: Observations above a forest canopy in a polluted environment. JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH, VOL. 108, NO. D6, 4197, doi:10.1029/2001JD001199, 2003.
How to Get the Benefits of Molecular Hydrogen (2013) Molecular Hydrogen Foundation [Online] Available: http://www.molecularhydrogenfoundation.org/core-information/how-to-get-the-benefits-of-molecular-hydrogen/.
Negative Ions Create Positive Vibes WebMD [Online] Available: http://www.webmd.com/balance/features/negative-ions-create-positive-vibes.
Negative Ion Benefits for Your Health Negative Ionizers [Online] Available: http://negativeionizers.net/negative-ions-benefits/.
McDowell, Natasha (2003). "Air ionisers wipe out hospital infections". The New Scientist (Daily news). [Online] Available: https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn3228-air-ionisers-wipe-out-hospital-infections/.
The International System of Units (SI), ed. Barry N. Taylor, NIST Special Publication 330, 2001. [Online] Available: https://www.nist.gov/sites/default/files/documents/pml/div684/fcdc/sp330-2.pdf A33 Cold Fusion Hydrogen Production.
Hydrogen Compressibility at different temperatures and pressures, U.S. Department of Energy [Online] Available: http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/hydrogen-data/hydrogen-compressibility-different-temperatures-and-pressures.
Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center, U.S. Department of Energy [Online] Available: http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/hydrogen-data/hydrogen-properties.
McCarthy, J. (1995). "Hydrogen". Stanford University. [Online] Available: http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html.
Ogden, J.M. (1999). "Prospects for building a hydrogen energy infrastructure". Annual Review of Energy and the Environment. 24: 227–279. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.24.1.227.
Weimer, Al (2005). "Development of solar-powered thermochemical production of hydrogen from water" (PDF). Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Generation Project. [Online] Available: https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/review05/pd28_weimer.pdf.
Perret, R. "Development of Solar-Powered Thermochemical Production of Hydrogen from Water, DOE Hydrogen Program, 2007" (PDF). [Online] Available: https://www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/progress07/ii_f_1_perret.pdf.
Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics, www.afdc.energy.gov [Online] Available: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/.
Colella, W. G. (2005). "Switching to a U.S. hydrogen fuel cell vehicle fleet: The resultant change in emissions, energy use, and greenhouse gases.".
Journal of Power Sources. 150 (1/2): 150–181. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2005.05.092.
Fuel Properties Comparison (PDF). energy.gov. Alternative Fuels Datacenter [Online] Available: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/fuel_comparison_chart.pdf.
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Annual Energy Review". Eia.doe.gov [Online] Available: https://web.archive.org/web/20100506022627/http:/www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/pecss_diagram.html.
Browse journals by subject