Volume 2, Issue 4, October 2016, Page: 57-63
Functional Basic Units of Physics and Reference Frames That Preserve Maxwell’s Equations
Steven D. Deines, Donatech Corporation, Inc., Fairfield, USA
Received: Aug. 12, 2016;       Accepted: Nov. 9, 2016;       Published: Dec. 12, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20160204.16      View  2516      Downloads  66
This paper briefly highlights that the basic time unit as the International System second is shorter than the original Universal Time second, which causes the International Atomic Time to run faster than Universal Time. This paper also discusses that the mole, candela, and ampere are functional definitions due to their dependence on other basic physical quantities in the internationally accepted list of fundamental quantities of physics. Particularly, electrical current in amperes is not fundamental concerning charge of electrons or protons. The ampere combines charge and time units, which makes it a functional quantity—not fundamental. Also, the definition of the ampere underscores a paradox with inertial frames. The expected forces between current-carrying wires that are moving can be explained only by an absolutely stationary frame. Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations are based on empirical results over the past two centuries. The Lorentz force, which is velocity dependent, violates Newton’s second law and the Equivalence Principle concerning inertial frames. If a Newtonian force, such as gravity, accelerates all points parallel and equally at each instant of time within the domain of a reference frame, then that frame is mathematically equivalent to an absolutely stationary frame. The speed of light is guaranteed to be a universal constant as well as all other electromagnetic constants within an absolutely stationary frame, which is mathematically equivalent for laboratories. Any slight variation of Newtonian forces within a laboratory is virtually undetectable with electromagnetic phenomena. Thus, Maxwell’s equations are valid only within an absolutely stationary reference frame.
Second, Time, Candela, Ampere, Kelvin Degree, Charge, Mole, Maxwell’s Equations, Lorentz Force
To cite this article
Steven D. Deines, Functional Basic Units of Physics and Reference Frames That Preserve Maxwell’s Equations, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2016, pp. 57-63. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20160204.16
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
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