Volume 2, Issue 4, October 2016, Page: 57-63
Functional Basic Units of Physics and Reference Frames That Preserve Maxwell’s Equations
Steven D. Deines, Donatech Corporation, Inc., Fairfield, USA
Received: Aug. 12, 2016;       Accepted: Nov. 9, 2016;       Published: Dec. 12, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20160204.16      View  2625      Downloads  68
Abstract
This paper briefly highlights that the basic time unit as the International System second is shorter than the original Universal Time second, which causes the International Atomic Time to run faster than Universal Time. This paper also discusses that the mole, candela, and ampere are functional definitions due to their dependence on other basic physical quantities in the internationally accepted list of fundamental quantities of physics. Particularly, electrical current in amperes is not fundamental concerning charge of electrons or protons. The ampere combines charge and time units, which makes it a functional quantity—not fundamental. Also, the definition of the ampere underscores a paradox with inertial frames. The expected forces between current-carrying wires that are moving can be explained only by an absolutely stationary frame. Maxwell’s electromagnetic equations are based on empirical results over the past two centuries. The Lorentz force, which is velocity dependent, violates Newton’s second law and the Equivalence Principle concerning inertial frames. If a Newtonian force, such as gravity, accelerates all points parallel and equally at each instant of time within the domain of a reference frame, then that frame is mathematically equivalent to an absolutely stationary frame. The speed of light is guaranteed to be a universal constant as well as all other electromagnetic constants within an absolutely stationary frame, which is mathematically equivalent for laboratories. Any slight variation of Newtonian forces within a laboratory is virtually undetectable with electromagnetic phenomena. Thus, Maxwell’s equations are valid only within an absolutely stationary reference frame.
Keywords
Second, Time, Candela, Ampere, Kelvin Degree, Charge, Mole, Maxwell’s Equations, Lorentz Force
To cite this article
Steven D. Deines, Functional Basic Units of Physics and Reference Frames That Preserve Maxwell’s Equations, International Journal of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2016, pp. 57-63. doi: 10.11648/j.ijamtp.20160204.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Markowitz, W., Hall, R. G., Essen, L., and Parry, J. V. L., “Frequency of Cesium in Terms of Ephemeris Time”, Physical Review Letters, Aug. 1958, 1, No. 3, p. 105-107.
[2]
Markowitz, W., “Comparisons of ET (soloar), ET (lunar), UT, and TDT” in The Earth’s Rotation and Reference Frames for Geodesy and Geodynamics, IAU Symposia #128, Babcock, A. K. and Wilkins, G. A. (eds.), (1988) p. 413-418.
[3]
Deines, S. D. and Williams, C. A., “Time Dilation and the Length of the Second”, Astron. J., (2007) 134, 64-70.
[4]
Improved Lunar Ephemeris 1952-1959, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., (1954), prepared jointly by Nautical Almanac Offices of the United States of America and the United Kingdom.
[5]
Deines, S. D. and Williams, C. A., “Earth’s Rotational Deceleration: Determination of Tidal Friction Independent of Timescales”, Astron. J. (2016) 151, p. 103-115.
[6]
Essen, L., Parry, J. V. L., Markowitz, W., and Hall, R. (1958) “Variation in the Speed of Rotation of the Earth since June 1955”, Nature, 181, 1054.
[7]
Markowitz, W., “Variations in the Rotation of the Earth: Results Obtained with the Dual-Rate Moon Camera and Photographic Zenith Tubes”, Astron. J., (1959) 64, 106-113.
[8]
McCarthy, D. D. and Seidelmann, P. K., Time—From Earth Rotation to Atomic Physics, Wiley-VCH Verlag Gm BH & Co. Weinheim (2009).
[9]
Deines, S. D. and Williams, C. A., “Two Differently Sized Seconds Explains Many Time Anomalies”, submitted to Astron. J., (2016).
[10]
BIPM website: www.bipm.org/en/measurement-units/
[11]
Woan, G., The Cambridge Handbook of Physics Formulas, Cambridge University Press, 2003.
[12]
Shortley, G. and Williams, D., Elements of Physics, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1965.
[13]
Kelvin, W., “On an Absolute Thermometeric Scale”, Philosophical Magazine, October 1848.
[14]
“Resolution 3: Definition of the Thermodynamic Temperature Scale”, Resolutions of the 10th CGPM, Bureau International des Poids et Measures, 1954.
[15]
Joule, J. P., “On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat”, Phil. Trans. of the R. Soc. of London, (1850) 140, p. 61-82.
[16]
Avogrado, L. R. A. C., “Mémoire sur les masses relatives des molécules des corps simples, ou densités présumées de leur gaz, et sur la constitution de quelques-uns de leur composés, pour servir de suite à l'Essai sur le même sujet” (trans. "Note on the Relative Masses of Elementary Molecules, or Suggested Densities of Their Gases, and on the Constituents of Some of Their Compounds”), le Journal de Physique, July 1811.
[17]
CGPM, The 9th General Conference of Weights and Measures, Resolutions 2 and 7, (1948).
[18]
Lorrain, P. and Corson, D. R., Electromagnetic Fields and Waves, 2nd ed. (1970) W. H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.
[19]
Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, 2nd ed., John Wiley and Sons, 1975.
[20]
Newton, I., Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, 3rd ed., (1725) translated from Latin by Andrew Motte, revised by Florian Cajori, Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc., 21st printing, (1977) LOC 55-10341.
Browse journals by subject